Egyptian limestone fragment, from the Amarna Period of the New Kingdom, ca. 1352-1336 B.C.E.
Courtesy of the Brooklyn Museum, via their online collections. Accession Number: 16.67.
The Poulnabrone Dolmen, County Clare, Ireland. Classified as a portal tomb, this structure dates to the Neolithic period, radiocarbon dates place its use between 3,800 - 3,600 BCE.
During excavations the skeletal remains of up to 22 prehistoric individual were found, which included both adults and children, as well as one newborn. Extensive specialist analysis has been done on these remains, offering us a rare insight into the lives of these Neolithic people.
[…] A variety of artefacts, presumably representing grave goods, were also recovered from the burial chamber. These included a polished stone axe, two stone beads, a decorated bone pendant, a fragment of a mushroom-headed bone pin, two quartz crystals, several sherds of coarse pottery, three chert arrowheads and three chert/flint scrapers.
The burial evidence from Poulnabrone has given us rare glimpse into the lives of our early ancestors. It appears that they endured a relatively tough existence, that involved hard physical labour, childhood illnesses, occasional violent attacks and early deaths. Although only a small section of the community were deemed worthy of burial in the tomb, there is little evidence for gender or age discrimination, with both male and female remains present as well as young and old. Prior to interment their bones appear to have been stored elsewhere and this may indicate that they were venerated as ancestor relics. Why certain individuals were chosen to be buried in the seemingly exalted location of a megalithic tomb, however, remains a mystery.
Photo courtesy of & taken by Nicolas Raymond.
Fragmentary relief showing Alexander the Great’s ascension to Heaven. Dates to the 2nd half of the 9th c. CE.
Courtesy of & currently located at the Museo Nazionale dell’Alto Medioevo, Rome. Photo taken by Dan Diffendale.
Palygorskite skull; information relating to its excavation is not known.
Courtesy of & currently located at the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico. Photo taken by Travis S.
A quick look at: Germanicus, a prominent Roman general of the early Empire, and the grandson-in-law of Augustus Caesar.
"Germanicus, too, that he might be the better known, took his helmet off his head and begged his men to follow up the slaughter, as they wanted not prisoners, and the utter destruction of the nation would be the only conclusion of the war. And now, late in the day, he withdrew one of his legions from the field, to intrench a camp, while the rest till nightfall glutted themselves with the enemy’s blood. Our cavalry fought with indecisive success." -Tacitus, Annals (2.26), via The Internet Classics Archive.
Germanicus Julius Caesar (15 BC-AD 19), usually just referred to as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and the nephew and adopted son of Tiberius. He commanded 8 Roman legions on the Rhine frontier with distinction. He appears to have gained affection among the Roman people; Suetonius in Life of Caligula III describes his “…unexampled kindliness, and a remarkable desire and capacity for winning men’s regard and inspiring their affection." He died aged 33 on October 9 of AD 19, it was a suspected poisoning.
Great honours were granted to Germanicus after his death and he was elevated to a god-like status:
[…] Five voting centuries were to be named after him; a curule chair was to be kept in the temple of the new god, the temples were to be closed on the day that Germanicus’ ashes were interred and sacrifices were to be made on that day each year at his tomb.
[…] In public, all due honours were granted to Germanicus. The only oddity was that Tiberius and his mother did not attend the internment. Some bad feeling may have been read into this by Germanicus’ supporters, but this would seem to be an over-reaction.
-Richard Alston in Aspects of Roman History AD 14–117, page 28.
Sculpture courtesy of & currently located at the Louvre, France. Photo taken by Jastrow. The sculpture dates to circa 40 AD, Accession number: Ma 1238.
Flake with drawing of Osiris seated on his throne within a shrine. Egyptian Ptolemaic Period, 305- 30 B.C.E.
Even if he were not labeled by the hieroglyphs at the right (“Osiris, the great god”), this deity would be easy to identify. Osiris, lord of the underworld, is always shown as a mummy, often wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt adorned with two feathers of Ma’at (cosmic harmony). Here the god holds his characteristic crook and flail and is seated in a shrine or under a canopy.
Though the almond eye, long nose, and full lips suggest a New Kingdom date (Dynasties XVIII–XX, circa 1539–1070 B.C.), many other details indicate that the sketch was made in the Ptolemaic Period. The meticulous detail, manifest in the delineation of the ear, the eye, the plaited beard, the nostril, the thumbnails, and the feather pattern of the throne, is diagnostic for Egyptian drawing and relief of the fourth through first centuries B.C.
Courtesy of & currently located at the Brooklyn Museum, USA. Via their online collections. Accession Number: 37.52E.
The head of a pipe made by Canadian First Peoples.
As the smoke is blown from their mouth and then down the pipe, it would emerge from the head at the end, creating a fascinating effect!