The submerged Neolithic village of Atlit Yam, off the coast of Atlit, Israel.
The area, which covers ca. 40,000 m², was rediscovered in 1984 by marine archaeologist Ehud Galili, who saw the site while surveying the area for shipwrecks. When attempting to determine what happened in the final days of human occupation of Atlit Yam, the general consensus is that is was abandoned very suddenly. For instance, the evidence of fish piles ready to be traded. 
Maria Pareschi of the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Pisa suggests that the cause was a tsunami which engulfed some of the Mediterranean coastal cities. 8,500 years ago the volcanic eruption of Eastern flank of Mount Etna would have likely caused this tsunami, which may have been up to 40m high.
Skeletons from the site have been found (see an example here), such as the remains of a child and women, presenting the earliest known cases of tuberculosis. Many remains of bone fish-hooks have also been found, which suggests the importance of marine resources to the village. Remains of hearth-places, rectangular houses, and wells have also been rediscovered.
The photo used in the post is of some form of (ritual?) structure made of stones found at the site. You can see an artistic reconstruction of what this area may have once looked like here.
Photo courtesy Hanay, via Wiki Commons. Article of particular use when writing this post: Marchant, Jo (25 November 2009). “Deep Secrets: Atlit-Yam, Israel”. New Scientist.

The submerged Neolithic village of Atlit Yam, off the coast of Atlit, Israel.

The area, which covers ca. 40,000 m², was rediscovered in 1984 by marine archaeologist Ehud Galili, who saw the site while surveying the area for shipwrecks. When attempting to determine what happened in the final days of human occupation of Atlit Yam, the general consensus is that is was abandoned very suddenly. For instance, the evidence of fish piles ready to be traded. 

Maria Pareschi of the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Pisa suggests that the cause was a tsunami which engulfed some of the Mediterranean coastal cities. 8,500 years ago the volcanic eruption of Eastern flank of Mount Etna would have likely caused this tsunami, which may have been up to 40m high.

Skeletons from the site have been found (see an example here), such as the remains of a child and women, presenting the earliest known cases of tuberculosis. Many remains of bone fish-hooks have also been found, which suggests the importance of marine resources to the village. Remains of hearth-places, rectangular houses, and wells have also been rediscovered.

The photo used in the post is of some form of (ritual?) structure made of stones found at the site. You can see an artistic reconstruction of what this area may have once looked like here.

Photo courtesy Hanay, via Wiki CommonsArticle of particular use when writing this post: Marchant, Jo (25 November 2009). “Deep Secrets: Atlit-Yam, Israel”. New Scientist.

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